straindesign.strainDesignModule
Class: strain design module (SDModule)
Module Contents
- class straindesign.strainDesignModule.SDModule(model, module_type, *args, **kwargs)[source]
Bases:
straindesign.parse_constr.Dict
Strain design modules are used to specify the goal of a strain design computation
(Lists of) SDModule objects are passed to compute_strain_design to specify the goal strain design computation. Strain design modules indicate the appraoch that should be used (OptKnock, RobustKnock, OptCouple or MCS) and the parameters for each approach. In each strain design computation, one of the following modules can be used at most once: OptKnock, RobustKnock and OptCouple. Additionally an arbitrary number of MCS modules (PROTECT or SUPPRESS) may me used. The global objective of a strain design computation depends on the specified modules. If an OptKnock or RobustKnock module is used, the global objective function will be defined by ‘outer_objective’ and ‘outer_opt_sense’. If OptCouple is used, the global objective is derived from by ‘inner_objective’ and ‘inner_opt_sense’. If only MCS-like modules (suppress, protect) are used in a computation, the number of interventions is globally minimized.
In the following, the modules and their mandatory/optional arguments are presented in detail.
- OptKnock:
Globally maximize an outer objective subjected to the maximization/optimization of an inner objective. For instance, maximize product synthesis, assuming that the strain maximizes its growth rate. When used with the ‘best’ or ‘populate’ approach (see compute_strain_designs), this module will guarantee that the found intervention set allows for the highest possible outer objective (e.g., production) under the premise that the inner objective (growth) is forced to be maximal. This means that the production potential is maximal. However it does not necessarily mean that production is enforced at high growth rates. For enforced growth coupling, refer to the other module types. Additional constraints can be used to impose certain properties on the designed strains: constraints=’growth >= 0.5’ will guarantee that the designed strain can reach growth rates above 0.5. constraints=[‘growth >= 0.5’, ‘EX_byprod_e <= 2’] additionally guarantees that the synthesis rate of a by-product stays below 2 at growth maximal flux states. Alternative inner or outer objective functions (e.g., ATP maintenance) can be used for diffent types of strain design.
mandatory arguments: model, module_type=’optknock’, inner_objective, outer_objective optional arguments: constraints, inner_opt_sense, outer_opt_sense, skip_checks (Detailed description of the arguments follow below)
- RobustKnock:
Globally minimize the maximum of an outer objective subjected to the maximization/optimization of an inner objective. For instance, maximize the minimal product synthesis rate, assuming that the strain maximizes its growth rate. When used with the ‘best’ or ‘populate’ approach (see compute_strain_designs), this module will guarantee that the found intervention set enforces that the minimum of the outer objective (e.g., maximal production) is maximal (max-min), given that the inner objective (growth) is forced to be maximal. This means that the minimal guaranteed production is maximal and production is guaranteed at growth-maximal flux states. Additional constraints can be used to impose certain properties on the designed strains: constraints=’growth >= 0.5’ will guarantee that the designed strain can reach growth rates above 0.5/h. constraints=[‘growth >= 0.5’, ‘EX_byprod_e<=2’] additionally guarantees that the synthesis rate of a by-product stays below 2 mmol/gCDW/h at growth maximal flux states.
mandatory arguments: model, module_type=’robustknock’, inner_objective, outer_objective optional arguments: constraints, inner_opt_sense, outer_opt_sense, skip_checks, reac_ids (Detailed description of the arguments follow below)
- OptCouple:
Globally maximize the growth-coupling potential, that is, the difference between the maximal growth rate without product synthesis and the maximum overall growth rate (with product synthesis). This strain design approach often leads to directionally growth-coupled strain designs. Again, alternative definitions of this objective are possible to, for instance, couple production to the synthesis of ATP. To specify the product for which coupling should be engineered, the reaction identifier of the product exchange (pseudo)reaction is passed through the prod_id parameter (see below). One may addidionally define a minimum growth-coupling potential through the parameter min_gcp.
mandatory arguments: model, module_type=’optcouple’, inner_objective, prod_id optional arguments: constraints, inner_opt_sense, min_gcp, skip_checks, reac_ids (Detailed description of the arguments follow below)
- Suppress:
MCS-like suppression of a subspace of all steady-state flux vectors. The ‘constraints’ parameter is used to descirbe the flux states that should not be eliminated from the flux space. Depending on the goal of the strain design computation, undesired flux states may be those with production of an undesired by-product, low product synthesis rates, low product yields or even flux states with microbial growth. In addition to constraints, an inner objective function can be defined that is enforced. In that case flux states are suppressed that are optimal with respect to the specified inner objective function and additionally fulfil the specified constraints. If the goal is to find minimal sets of knockouts that are lethal for an organism, one can use a suppress module with the constraint parameter: constraints=’growth >= 0.01’. The algorithm will then find thes smallest sets of knockouts that render flux states with growth >= 0.01 infeasible. If we take the example of production strain design, one could use the suppress module to enforce a certain product yield (prod/subst > min_yield) growth-maximal flux states. This can be done by defining an inner objective function for optmizing growth and selecting a minimum production threshold to be attained at maximum growth: inner_objective=’1.0 growth’, constraints=’EX_prod_e - min_yield*UP_subst_e <= 0’. If used without any constraints, the suppress module ensures that the model is infeasible.
mandatory arguments: model, module_type=’suppress’ optional arguments: constraints, inner_objective, inner_opt_sense, skip_checks, reac_ids (Detailed description of the arguments follow below)
- Protect:
MCS-like protection of a subspace of all steady-state flux vectors. The ‘constraints’ parameter is used to descirbe flux states that should become/stay feasible when/by introducing interventions. This can be used to maintain or protect certain metabolic functions, like microbial growth, despite engineering a strain for bioroduction. When provided with an inner objective, the protect module will ensure that flux vectors optimal with respect to the inner objective function will be able to fulfil the constraints set in the ‘constraints’ parameter. This can be used to design potentially growth-coupled strains with a minimum set of metabolic interventions. As an example, if one uses the protect module to ensure that growth with rates above 0.1/h remains feasible, one sets constraints=’growth >= -0.1’. If the goal is to ensure that product synthesis is possible at rates of more than 5 mmol/gCDW/h at maximal growth, one sets: inner_objective=’1.0 growth’ and constraints=’EX_prod_e >= 5’. If used without any constraints, the protect module just ensures that the model is feasible.
mandatory arguments: model, module_type=’protect’ optional arguments: constraints,inner_objective, inner_opt_sense, skip_checks, reac_ids (Detailed description of the arguments follow below)
Example
m = SDModule(model,’optknock’,outer_objective=’growth’, inner_objective=’EX_etoh_e’, constraints=’growth >= 0.2’)
- Parameters:
model (cobra.Model) – A metabolic model that is an instance of the cobra.Model class. Instead of a model, a dummy object can be used as long as it has the field ‘id’. If a dummy is used, skip_checks=True must be used and a list of reaction ids must be provided through reac_ids=*list_of_strings*.
module_type (str) – A string that specifies the module type. Allowed values are ‘optknock’, ‘robustknock’, ‘optcouple’, ‘protect’, ‘suppress’. Depending on the specified module type, other parameters must be set accordingly (see description above).
constraints (optional (str) or (list of str) or (list of [dict,str,float])) –
(Default: ‘’)
List of linear constraints to be used in the module, e.g., to be enforced, suppressed or taken into account: signs + or -, scalar factors for reaction rates, inclusive (in)equalities and a float value on the right hand side. The parsing of the constraints input allows for some flexibility. Correct (and identical) inputs are, for instance: constraints=’-EX_o2_e <= 5, ATPM = 20’ or constraints=[‘-EX_o2_e <= 5’, ‘ATPM = 20’] or constraints=[[{‘EX_o2_e’:-1},’<=’,5], [{‘ATPM’:1},’=’,20]]
inner_objective (optional (str) or (dict)) – The linear inner objective function for any module type. This parameter is mandatory for OptKnock, RobustKnock and OptCouple modules and optional for suppress and protect modules. If used, an optimization is nested into the global problem. It can be used to account for the biological objective of growth (inner_objective=’BIOMASS_Ecoli_core_w_GAM’). Any linear expression can be used as input, either as a single string or as a dict. Correct (and identical) inputs are, for instance: inner_objective=’BIOMASS_Ecoli_core_w_GAM - 0.05 EX_etoh_e’ inner_objective={‘BIOMASS_Ecoli_core_w_GAM’: 1, ‘EX_etoh_e’: -0.05}
inner_opt_sense (optional (str)) –
(Default: ‘maximize’)
Sense of the inner optimization (maximization or minimization). Allowed values are ‘minimize’ and ‘maximize’.
outer_objective (optional (str) or (dict)) – The linear outer objective function for any module type. This parameter is mandatory for OptKnock and RobustKnock and cannot be used with OptCouple, suppress and protect modules. If applied, this objective function is used as the global objective function. In case of OptCouple, the global objective is the maximization of the growth-coupling potential and the outer objective is not specified manually. Typical outer objectives are the optimization of product synthesis (outer_objective=’BIOMASS_Ecoli_core_w_GAM’), but also combinations of product synthesis and growth are possible. Any linear expression can be used as input, either as a single string or as a dict. Correct (and identical) inputs are, for instance: outer_objective=’BIOMASS_Ecoli_core_w_GAM + 0.1 EX_prod_e’ outer_objective={‘BIOMASS_Ecoli_core_w_GAM’: 1, ‘EX_prod_e’: 0.1}
outer_opt_sense (optional (str)) –
(Default: ‘maximize’)
Sense of the outer optimization (maximization or minimization). Allowed values are ‘minimize’ and ‘maximize’.
prod_id (optional (str) or (dict)) – The reaction id of the product of interest. This parameter is only used in OptCouple strain design and will have no effect as part of any other module. Permitted is any linear expression either in the form of a string or as a dict: prod_id=’EX_etoh’ prod_id={‘EX_etoh’: 1}
min_gcp (optional (float)) –
(Default: 0.0)
Minimial growth-coupling potential (GCP). I.e., the minimum difference between maximum growth with and without production. In practice there are two nested optimizations, one that optimizes inner_objective and one that optimizes inner_objective and additionally demands that the constraint: prod_id=0 holds. Therefore, min_gcp presents the minimum enforced growth-coupling potential, so, a minimum objective value. This parameter is supposed to be used with the ‘any’ approach and has (virtually) no effect when used with ‘best’ or ‘populate’, since GCP is maximized anyway.
skip_checks (optional (bool)) –
(Default: False)
Skip the module verification. If checks are not skipped, the constructor will verify, if the module is feasible with the original model, that is, if all entered parameters parse correctly and if the given sets of constraints can be applied on the model without rendering it infeasible. Finally, it throws an error if the trivial 0-vector is feasible in the subspaces defined by a suppress or protect module, since the user should ensure that the 0-vector is excluded from these subspaces (see online documentation for detail).
- Returns:
A strain design module object that can be used with the function compute_strain_design. Multiple modules can be used to specify a strain design problem.
- Return type:
(SDModule)
Initialize self. See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.